Potential Obstacles

For LGBTQ2+ Communities

Barriers in Education and Employment:

  • 74% of trans students, 55% of sexual minority students, and 26% of non-LGBTQ students reported having been verbally harassed about their gender expression (Taylor, 2011).
  • 37% of trans students, 32% of female sexual minority students, and 20% of male sexual minority students reported being verbally harassed daily or weekly about their sexual orientation (Taylor, 2011).
  • 68% of trans students, 55% of female sexual minority students, and 42% of male sexual minority students reported being verbally harassed about their perceived gender or sexual orientation. Trans youth may report experiencing particularly high levels of harassment on the basis of perceived sexual orientation because often trans individuals are perceived as lesbian, gay, or bisexual when they are not (Taylor, 2011).
  • More than a third (37%) of youth with LGBTQ parents reported being verbally harassed about the sexual orientation of their parents. They are also more likely to be verbally harassed about their own gender expression (58% versus 34% of other students), perceived sexual orientation or gender identity (46% versus 20%), gender (45% versus 22%), and sexual orientation (44% versus 20%) (Taylor, 2011).
  • For many LGBT students, their sexual orientation or gender expression causes them to feel unsafe at school. More than half of LGBT students (53%) feel unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation [and] more than one-third (36%) feel unsafe because of how they express their gender” (GLSEN, 2005).
  • LGBT students are four times more likely to have skipped class because they do not feel safe at school than their non-LGBT peers (22% vs. 6%) (GLSEN, 2005).


Banks, Christopher. (2003). The Cost of Homophobia: Literature Review on the Human Impact of Homophobia in Canada. [Saskatoon, SK: Gay and Lesbian Health Services.]

Harris Interactive and GLSEN (2005). From Teasing to Torment: School Climate in America, A Survey of Students and Teachers. [New York: GLSEN.]

Mallon, G.P. (1994). Counselling Strategies for Gay and Lesbian Youth in Helping Gay and Lesbian Youth: New Policies, New Programs, New Practice. Decrescenzo, T. (Ed). Haworth Press. 75 – 91.

Patton, C. (2005). Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 2004: A Report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. [National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. New York, NY.]

Sullivan, C., Sommer, S., and Moff, J. (2001). Youth in the Margins: A Report on the Unmet Needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescents in Foster Care. [New York: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund.]

Connoley, R. (2005) Statistics of GLB Homelessness. The Safe Schools Coalition [Online]
Available: http://www.safeschoolscoalition.org/RG-homeless.html

Taylor, Catherine et al. (2011). Every Class in Every School: Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia in Canadian Schools [Online]
Available: http://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/EgaleFinalReport-web.pdf